Italy’s Fiat-Ansaldo (Carro Armato) M13/40 medium tank was the main tank used by the Italians during the Second World War.
Italy’s Fiat-Ansaldo (Carro Armato) M13/40 medium tank was the main tank used by the Italians during the Second World War.
The KV is a series of Soviet heavy tanks; that take their namesake from People’s Defense Commissioner and political statesman Kliment Voroshilov (KV). The KV-1 was designed by TsKB-2 design bureau lead by chief engineer Zh. Kotin. The design characteristics of this initial vehicle invovled an all-wielded hull with cast turret, with wide reinforced tracks and a torsion-bar suspension. The production of the KV-1 was approved by Joseph Stalin himself. The tank should have been named KS-1 or Kotin-Stalin. By April of 1939 a wooden mockup had been made which was presented to the General Staff in September. Two prototypes were tested at the Kubinka test grounds near Moscow and later under combat conditions during the war in Finland.
The first 50 preseries KV-1 and the two prototypes were almost identical; the preseries having some redesigns related to ease of production. The design for the KV-1 borrowed the same hull, transmission, optics, and torsion bar suspension from the SMK; also designed by the TsKB-2 design bureau. An initial problem encountered with the KV-1 and the SMK also during design was that no existing transmission was able to cope with the mass of the vehicle; roughly 45 tonnes or more. The wheel train utilized front idler wheels as well as the same rear drive sprockets of the T28; as well as 6 twin roadwheel bogies utilizing an independent torsion-bar system. Additionally there were three return rollers. For both vehicles, an existing caterpillar system was used; which proved unreliable during operation. The first 50 KV-1 tanks, all model 1939, were produced at the Kirov Factory, ChTZ but delivered in March of 1940.
For crew placement the driver was placed in the middle, the radio operator who doubled as the machine gunner (turret) sat to the driver’s left, and the other three crew members were either in or below the turret. The vehicle suffered from poor visibility as only narrow vision slits were provided; with the driver’s frontal slit made of a poor quality laminated glass that was often blurred. Further the vision periscope had limited traverse. The commander who also doubled as the loader for the main gun, had two turret periscopes.
There were a number of different models in the Kliment Voroshilov series of tanks. This article reviews the first model by version.
KV-1 Model 1939
The KV-1 model 1939 was the first in the KV-1 series and the first of the tanks to bear the name of Kliment Voroshilov. As the first production model, this tank demonstrated problems that led to frequent breakdowns. 141 of this initial model would be made. These vehicles would have a major impact on the battlefield were they were extremely difficult to knock out. The main armament of this version was the 76 mm L-11 tank gun although the F-32 was planned; the L-11 is recognizable due to a recuperator above the barrel. Many of these vehicles lacked a secondary hull machine gun.
At 76.2 mm or 3 inch, and 30.5 calibers in length, the L-11 tank gun was used on both early model T-34 medium tanks, and early KV-1 heavy tanks. The DT 7.9 machine gun was utilized in two positions; one in a hull ballmount and another in the rear of the turret, also in a ballmount. Many of the model 1939 vehicles lacked the hull machine gun.
KV-1 Model 1940 or KV-1A
The KV-1 model 1940 (German designation: KV-1A) was the main production model by the time of the German invasion. This new version was armed with the F-32 76 mm gun and had a new mantlet; however initially 50 would continue to use the 76 mm L-11 tank gun due to production delays. Approximately 250 of this model were made.
The F-32 was capable of firing AP, F-342 rounds or BR-3502 and HE shells. The BR-3502 AP rounds were capable of a speed of 612 m/sec. and 66 mm of armour-piercing capacity at 500 m.
KV-1 Model 1939/1940/1941 s ekranami (“with screens”) or KV1-E
The KV-1 model 1939/1940/1941 s ekranami (“with screens”) or KV1-E had additional armour bolted-on in the form of appliqué armour; this was done to model 1939, 1940, and 1941 tanks. Model 1939 tanks were also upgunned to the F32 tank cannon. This modification was intended to counter German tactics learned on the battlefield that assisted in disabling and destroying KV-1 tanks.
KV-1 Model 1941/1942 (KV-1B)
This model introduced a cast turret and additional armour. Prior models had welded turrets. Additional armour came in the form of 25 to 35 mm on the turret, hull front and sides. Additionaly a new armament in the form of the F-34 and later the ZiS-5 76.2 mm tank guns.
Weighing 45 tonnes, the vehicle was 6.75 m long, 3.32 m wide, and 2.71 m high with a crew of 5 with a maximum armour of 90 mm.
KV-1 Model 1942 (KV-1C)
The KV-1 model 1942 (KV-1C) was armed with a 76 mm ZiS-5 tank gun and possessed an improved engine and additional armour. Further, this vehicle used either a fully cast turret or welded turret.
The KV-1S was a lighter variant of the late 1942 model; with improved speed but thinner armour as well as a new, smaller, cast turret and a redesigned rear hull. 1370 were built.
The KV-85 was a revision of the KV-1S design.
KV-1(r) (Panzerkampfwagen KV-IA 753(r) and Panzerkampfwagen KV-IB 755(r) )
The Germans captured a number of KV-1 tanks and gave them the designation KV-1(r). Of these captured vehicles, some would be fitted with the German KwK 40 L/43 75-mm gun; the same gun as used in the German Panzer IV Ausf F2.
1. “Kliment Voroshilov tank.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 5 Oct 2013. Web. 12 Nov 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kliment_Voroshilov_tank>.
2. “KV-1 identification thread [PRELIMINARY].” Armchair General. N.p., 15 May 2009. Web. 17 Nov 2013. <http://www.armchairgeneral.com/forums/showthread.php?t=77660>.
3. “KV-1 (Kliment Voroshilov).” Tanks Encyclopedia: The Ultimate Tanks Database. N.p.. Web. 19 Nov 2013. <http://www.tanks-encyclopedia.com/ww2/soviet/soviet_KV-1.php>.
4. “ARMOURED VEHICLES PART 9: KV-1 AND PzKw IVJ TANKS.” Jaeger Platoon: Finnish Army 1918 – 1945 Website. N.p., 21 Jul 2013. Web. 24 Nov 2013. <http://www.jaegerplatoon.net/TANKS7.htm>.
5. “L-11 76.2 mm tank gun.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 22 Sep 2013. Web. 24 Nov 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L-11_76.2_mm_tank_gun>.
There is a plethora of information on the internet; the scale and variety of the information available is the best aspect of the web. Unfortunately the downside invariably relates to the subject matter, and more specific to this article the quality of the information online. In this article we will be discussing a vehicle that has been discussed on the internet by several names, one of which is the KV-VI. The Soviet KV-VI, or Behemoth, is described as a KV series tank made to excessive proportions; specifically an elongated chassis supporting multiple turrets, both main and secondary. This vehicle never existed.
The Kliment Voroshilov series of tanks are known to have been heavily armoured; and during the beginning of the invasion of the Soviet Union, difficult to knockout. It is claimed that the KV-VI was ordered, possibly by Stalin himself, as a response to stories of KV series tanks (KV-1 or KV-2) that single-handedly changed the course of a battle. It is claimed that two prototypes were created. The following quote is oft repeated:
“The first prototype was completed in December 1941 and was rushed into the defense of Moscow. In its first action during a dense winter fog, the rear turret accidentally fired into the center turret. The resulting explosion completely destroyed the vehicle. The second prototype was completed in January 1942, and was sent to the Leningrad front. This one had indicators installed to show when another turret was in the line of fire. In its initial attack on the Germans, the tank broke in half when crossing a ravine.” (“Secret Weapons: KV-VI Behemoth.”)
Purportedly called Stalin’s Orchestra by those Germans who encountered it; it is claimed the vehicle had a crew of 15 men and one Commissar.
A model of the KV-VI was made by modeler Brian Fowler:
Fowler’s model has been show in a number of articles on the KV-VI; and was the basis for other representations of the vehicle including a diagram of the KV-VI by deviantART user VonBrrr. Click here to see VonBrr’s page. VonBrr’s representation also is popular in articles on the subject. VonBrrr notes:
Half way through illustrating I found that the thing never really existed[...]
Although the KV-VI didn’t exist, it is not likely a fake as it is often described as being. The KV-VI is more likely the result of harmless creations by enthusiasts that went viral. Advanced modelers for example are known to be extremely creative with their designs; including reusing parts left over from kits. This may be what Fowler’s model was born from; and in my opinion his work is likely the beginning of the KV-VI’s life.
1. “Secret Weapons: KV-VI Behemoth.” Geheimkrieg. Blogger, 27 May 2011. Web. 28 Nov 2013. <http://geheimkrieg.blogspot.com/2011/05/secret-weapons-kv-vi-behemoth.html>.
2. “The soviet behemoth — KV VI.” The Order Of The Iron Phoenix’s Blog. N.p., 17 Jul 2013. Web. 28 Nov 2013. <http://theorderoftheironphoenix.com/wp/the-soviet-behemoth-kv-vi/>.
3. “T-28.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 29 Oct 2013. Web. 28 Nov 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T-28>.
In 1994 Panzer General, SSI’s classic turn-based military strategy game was released. The game was based on Germany’s fortunes and failures from the Second World War. Today the game can be downloaded for free; as it is abandonware or an intellectual property abandoned by it’s owner. Click here to download.
This article is on the Italian Obice da 305/17 G. Mod. 1917 howitzer circa the First World War. I wanted to write this when I noted a number of pictures of this piece that were misidentified; and no details. After finding some good Italians sources I can now write something. Often described online as an Italian self propelled gun; nothing could be farther from the truth. This is the antiquated Italian Obice da 305/17 G. Mod. 1917 howitzer circa the First World War.
As can be seen from the photos below, the howitzer could be set in a fixed position or in the wheeled version which was a portion of the De Stefano (D.S.) carriage which compensated for it’s recoil from the use of inclined ramps. The tracks pictured on the wheels are likely for transport only when it isn’t on it’s rail assembly; they are pedrail wheels. Designed in 1908 and built between 1914 and 1917, a total of 44 were built by Armstrong-Pozzuoli and Vickers-Terni. This howitzer was 305 mm.
The Obice da 305/17 G. Mod. 1917 howitzer required a team of individuals and equipment to disassemble and move it; the below pictures illustrate the gun along with it disassembled for transport by tractors.
1. “305/17.” Wikipedia: L’enciclopedia libera. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 14 Jun 2013. Web. 11 Nov 2013. <http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/305/17>.
The 8.8 cm FlaK auf Sonderfahrgestell or Flakpanzer für s FlaK (Pz. Sfl. IVc) was a German tank destroyer that only made it to the prototype stage; I will refer to it as the Pz. Sfl. IVc, another designation, for the remainder of this article. In 1941, the Waffenamt orderd a heavy Panzerjäger. The vehicle was inted to mount the 8.8cm L/56 cannon. The turret design was intended to be an open design. A later revision would plan that the 8.8 cm Pak L/71 cannon would be used. The project for a heavy Panzerjäger would be canceled after the chassis had been built; they would in turn be used for the development of a heavy FlaK vehicle. In 1944 the FlaK41 was mounted. Plans were in place to mount the Gerät 042 as well as the 10.5 cm leFH43 Waffenträger. Only 3 prototypes would be built by Krupp, the manufacturer. The vehicle had a crew of 8 and weighed 26 tons. The vehicle was powered by a Maybach HL90 engine and measured 7 metres long, by 3 metres wide, by 2.8 metres high.
This vehicle is available in the video game World of Tanks as the Pz.Sfl. IVc:
1. Doyle, Hilary L., and Peter Chamberlain. Encyclopedia of German Tanks of World War Two: A complete illustrated directory of German battle tanks, armoured cars, self-propelled guns and semi-tracked vehicles, 1933-1945. Revised Edition. New York: Sterling Publishing Co.Inc., 1994. 160 – 161. Print.