Tankpedia is a website about Armoured Fighting Vehicles especially tanks.

Category: Prototype (Page 1 of 2)

The Soviet KV-VI Behemoth

There is a plethora of information on the internet; the scale and variety of the information available is the best aspect of the web. Unfortunately the downside invariably relates to the subject matter, and more specific to this article the quality of the information online. In this article we will be discussing a vehicle that has been discussed on the internet by several names, one of which is the KV-VI. The Soviet KV-VI, or Behemoth, is described as a KV series tank made to excessive proportions; specifically an elongated chassis supporting multiple turrets, both main and secondary. This vehicle never existed.

The Kliment Voroshilov series of tanks are known to have been heavily armoured; and during the beginning of the invasion of the Soviet Union, difficult to knockout. It is claimed that the KV-VI was ordered, possibly by Stalin himself, as a response to stories of KV series tanks (KV-1 or KV-2) that single-handedly changed the course of a battle. It is claimed that two prototypes were created. The following quote is oft repeated:

“The first prototype was completed in December 1941 and was rushed into the defense of Moscow. In its first action during a dense winter fog, the rear turret accidentally fired into the center turret. The resulting explosion completely destroyed the vehicle. The second prototype was completed in January 1942, and was sent to the Leningrad front. This one had indicators installed to show when another turret was in the line of fire. In its initial attack on the Germans, the tank broke in half when crossing a ravine.” (“Secret Weapons: KV-VI Behemoth.”)

Purportedly called Stalin’s Orchestra by those Germans who encountered it; it is claimed the vehicle had a crew of 15 men and one Commissar.

A model of the KV-VI was made by modeler Brian Fowler:

Fowler’s model has been show in a number of articles on the KV-VI; and was the basis for other representations of the vehicle including a diagram of the KV-VI by deviantART user VonBrrr. Click here to see VonBrr’s page. VonBrr’s representation also is popular in articles on the subject. VonBrrr notes:

Half way through illustrating I found that the thing never really existed[…]

Although the KV-VI didn’t exist, it is not likely a fake as it is often described as being. The KV-VI is more likely the result of harmless creations by enthusiasts that went viral. Advanced modelers for example are known to be extremely creative with their designs; including reusing parts left over from kits. This may be what Fowler’s model was born from; and in my opinion his work is likely the beginning of the KV-VI’s life.

Works Cited:

1. “Secret Weapons: KV-VI Behemoth.” Geheimkrieg. Blogger, 27 May 2011. Web. 28 Nov 2013. <http://geheimkrieg.blogspot.com/2011/05/secret-weapons-kv-vi-behemoth.html>.

2. “The soviet behemoth — KV VI.” The Order Of The Iron Phoenix’s Blog. N.p., 17 Jul 2013. Web. 28 Nov 2013. <http://theorderoftheironphoenix.com/wp/the-soviet-behemoth-kv-vi/>.

3. “T-28.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 29 Oct 2013. Web. 28 Nov 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T-28>.

Germany’s Lauster Wargel LW-5

Germany's Lauster Wargel LW-5

Germany’s Wargel LW-5 as created by Lauster.

In 1943 at the request of the Railway Engineer Branch (Pionier- und Eisenbahnpionier-AbteilungEngineer ) or WaPrüf 5 (Waffenprüfämter 5), the company Lauster in Stuttgart built a vehicle intended to tow German armoured vehicles. The vehicle possessed a unique design comparable to the minesweeper, Raumer S, created by Krupp; like that vehicle, the Wargel LW-5 was effectively two units connected at the midsection each possessing a motor with the whole of the vehicle moved on four large wheels. The Wargel LW-5 was powered by Maybach HL 108 TUKRM engines each generating 235 hp allowing the 36 ton vehicle to pull up to 53 tons. The choice of the large spiked wheels was intended to enhance the vehicles traction on difficult terrain. Although the vehicle was thoroughly tested with satisfactory results, it did not pass the prototype stage. Tests of the vehicle included the use of a spade for digging trenches. Like the Raumer S, the vehicles slow and awkward movements were seen as a significant problem which likely was the reason the idea was passed.

Germany's Wargel LW-5 as created by Lauster.

Germany’s Wargel LW-5 as created by Lauster.


Length: 12.4 m
Height: 3 m
Width: 3.56 m
Maximum speed: 30 km/h

1. Arndt, Rob. “LAUSTER WARGEL LW-5.” STRANGE VEHICLES OF PRE-WAR GERMANY & THE THIRD REICH (1928-1945). N.p.. Web. 27 Oct 2013. <http://strangevehicles.greyfalcon.us/Lauster.htm>.

2. “Waffenamt.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 28 Feb 2013. Web. 27 Oct 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waffenamt>.

3. “Lauster Wargel LW 5.” Kfz. der Wehrmacht. N.p.. Web. 27 Oct 2013. <http://www.kfzderwehrmacht.de/Homepage_english/Motor_Vehicles/Germany/Lauster/Lauster_Wargel_LW_5/body_lauster_wargel_lw_5.html>.

Germany’s Krupp Raumer S (Selbstrantrieb) Heavily Armoured Minesweeper

Germany's Krupp Raumer S (Selbstrantrieb)  Heavily Armoured Minesweeper

Germany’s Krupp Raumer S (Selbstrantrieb) heavily armoured minesweeper pictured after having been captured by US forces.

The Raumer S (Selbstrantrieb) was a heavily armoured minesweeper developed and built by Krupp for Germany during the Second World War. Weighing over 130 tons, this behemoth was effectively two sections articulated in the center, and moved by massive steel wheels that were 2.7 m in diameter. The vehicle was 15 m long and 4 m high. The track widths differed between the front and rear to encourage a wider sweep path. Each section of the Raumer S was powered by a Mayback HL90 engine generating 360 hp and 3600 rpm. Although armaments were not placed on the prototype which was created, there were plans to mount 7.92mm MG-42 machine guns for both anti-personnel and anti-aircraft roles. At the end of the war the existing Raumer S prototype was captured by the US Military; although what happened after it’s capture is unknown.

An artist's representation of Germany's Krupp Raumer S (Selbstrantrieb) heavily armoured minesweeper.

An artist’s representation of Germany’s Krupp Raumer S (Selbstrantrieb) heavily armoured minesweeper.

Works Cited:

1. “Krupp Raumer S Selbstrantrieb.” Achtung Panzer!. N.p.. Web. 26 Oct 2013. <http://www.achtungpanzer.com/krupp-raumer-s-selbstrantrieb.htm>.

2. “German Mine clearer.” WWII In Color. N.p.. Web. 27 Oct 2013. <http://www.ww2incolor.com/german-armor/ww2 photos 082.html>.

3. “Raumer-130 Ton Minesweeper.” AMi Right Making Fun of Music, One Song At a Time. Since The Year 2000.. N.p.. Web. 27 Oct 2013. <http://www.amiright.com/parody/60s/unknown6.shtml>.

Germany’s Minenräumer (Vs.Kfz. 617), A Heavily Armoured Minesweeper Built By Alkett

The surviving VsKfz 617 Minenräumer at the Kubinka tank museum in Russia.

The surviving VsKfz 617 Minenräumer at the Kubinka tank museum in Russia.

Germany’s Minenräumer (Vs.Kfz. 617) was a prototype armoured vehicle designed jointly by Krupp, Daimler-Benz and Alkett and built by Alkett; the purpose of the vehicle was clearing mine fields. Although the vehicle never went to production, the prototype survives and is on display at the Kubinka tank museum in Russia. The vehicle was designed to be capable of moving through a mine field impervious to the damage that might otherwise be caused to other AFVs; this of course led to the vehicle being extremely heavy and slow which was a major factor in the project being abandoned. The vehicle was armed with twin 7.92 mm MG-34 machine guns mounted in either a Panzer 1  Ausf. A or Ausf. B turret. The vehicle was protected by  between 10 and 40 mm of armour.

Works Cited:

1. Arndt, Rob. “ALKETT VsKfz 617 MINENRÄUMER (1942-1945).” STRANGE VEHICLES OF PRE-WAR GERMANY & THE THIRD REICH (1928-1945). N.p.. Web. 25 Oct 2013. <ALKETT VsKfz 617 MINENRÄUMER>.

2. Svirin, M. “Немецкий минный трал Minenraumer. Немецкие машины специального назначения времен Второй мировой войны. Немецкий минный трал Minenraumer.” Блокада Ленинграда Исторические события блокадного Ленинграда. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Oct 2013. <http://blokadaleningrada.ru/content/view/id-2341/>.

The Black Knight, A Prototype Unmanned Light Tank


The Black Knight, is an unmanned light tank being developed by British BAE systems. In terms of size and appearance it looks like a dwarf M1 Abrams. Its main armament is a 30 mm gun and it also has a 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun. It is powered by a 300 hp Caterpillar diesel engine capable of allowing the vehicle to achieving a maximum speed of 77 km/h (48 mph).

Enjoy the following video:

Works Cited:

1. “Black Knight (vehicle).” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 20 Sep 2013. Web. 5 Oct 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Knight_(vehicle)>.

The Polish PL-01 Concept Tank

The Polish PL-01 concept tank is a proposed tank design for the Polish military; and is being developed in conjunction between Polish Defence Company Obrum (a subdivision of Polish Defence Holding) and British conglomerate BAE Systems. The PL-01 was unveiled at MSPO 2013; the International Defense Industry Exhibition in Poland. It is to have the following features: a crew of three; a 105 mm or 120 mm auto loading main gun; an a remote controlled 7.62 mm machine gun as well as other active and passive countermeasures including a 12.7 mm or 40 mm grenade launcher; heat and radar reduction due to material used in construction; use steel or rubber tracks; move quickly on and off road and effectively traverse water; and is to be modular in design. Variants will include a command vehicle, recovery vehicle, mine sweeping vehicle and others.

Works Cited:

1. ““Siemka this, bitch!” – new Polish tank concept PL-01.” For The Record. N.p., 3 Sep 2013. Web. 29 Sep 2013. <http://ftr.wot-news.com/2013/09/03/siemka-this-bitch-new-polish-tank-concept-pl-01/>.
2. “PL-01 Concept. New Polish tank. Presentation..” Live Leak: Redefining The Media. N.p., 7 Sep 2013. Web. 29 Sep 2013. <http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=9b9_1378581004>.
3. “More info on the PL-01 Direct Support Vehicle Concept..” SNAFU! A Marine Corps centric blog, with a view on all things military…. Blogger, 2 Sep 2013. Web. 30 Sep 2013. <http://snafu-solomon.blogspot.com/2013/09/more-info-on-pl-01-direct-support.html>.
4. “PL-01 Concept Direct Fire Support Vehicle.” . Army Recognition. Web. 30 Sep 2013. <http://www.armyrecognition.com/poland_polish_tanks_heavy_armoured_vehicles_uk/pl-01_concept_direct_fire_support_vehicle_technical_data_sheet_specifications_pictures_video.html>.

The T110 120mm Heavy Tank Project

Today’s post is on the T110 120mm heavy tank project. While I cite numerous sources for this article I must point out that it is the work of author Hunnicutt which is the authoritative and most influential of all reference materials.

Initiated on December 3, 1954, the T110 120mm heavy tank project began (Estes). Prior work had begun on October 30 for cannons to be used in this project, the T204 and T179, 120mm cannons. On September 18, 1956 the project would be canceled in light of the success of the  T43 project which would lead to the M103 (Estes). The T110 began life as concept TS-31 and was given to Chrysler Corporation with their proposal being the 120mm gun tank T110 (Hunnicutt). There were multiple versions of the T110 that were proposed. The initial proposal was rejected as its dimensions would of prohibited the vehicles passage through the Berne International Tunnel, a requirement for the project (Hunnicutt). A further requirement was that the vehicle have a 50 ton weight limit (Hunnicutt). As design progressed the  T123E1 was selected as the cannon (Hunnicutt). All total there were five T110 designs (Hunnicutt). The names Chrysler and Detroit Arsenal should be considered interchangeable when reading on the development of this tank. To be clear the Detroit Arsenal, or Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant (DATP) was established by Chrysler but owned and by the United States government and alternately would be Army operated or contractor operated (“Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant”). Chrysler operated the facility during the development of the T110; having regained it from the Army in 1952 (“Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant”).

The five proposals:

  1. Proposal 1 – initially rejected as the cupola arrangement would have prohibited the vehicles passage through the Berne International Tunnel. Redesigned so that the cab width was reduced to 124″ and commander relocated to center rear; the nose shortened; and fuel removed from the front. AV-1790 engine selected; XTG-500 transmission; flat-track suspension (Hunnicutt).

  2. Proposal 2 – redesign of proposal 1 with transmission relocated to engine compartment; cupola removed; fuel moved to front with the driver to the left; AOI-1490 engine selected; XTG-500 transmission; traditional suspension (Hunnicutt).

    Proposal 2

    Proposal 2

  3. Proposal 3 – the main gun was placed in a rigid mount for this proposal. This proposal was fraught with problems with regards to power plant mounting; engine and transmission issues; grill area issues (Hunnicutt).

    Proposal 3

    Proposal 3

  4. Proposal 4 – this proposal placed an AOI-1490 engine and XTG-510 transmission in rear; rear deck infrared sheilding; rigid gun emplacement; both .50 and .30 caliber machine guns; a T53 OPTAR range finder; a T156 telescope as the main gun site and a M16A1 periscope as the secondary sitting mechanism. The commander was placed in the center towards the rear; the gunner on the left of the gun mount; and the driver at the right of the gun mount. This vehicle had a limited turret traverse (Hunntington).
  5. Proposal 5 – this design was for a vehicle with a turret capable of a full 360 degree traverse. This design many standard components including the same turret traverse ring as the M103 series. This design had a crew of four; with the gunner and the commander to the left of the main gun. This design had a power rammer for the main gun; a commander’s override system; a T53 OPTAR range finder. A full size mock up was made of this vehicle (Hunntington).

    Proposal 5

    Proposal 5

A document reflecting specifications for the T95, T96, and  T110:

Project T95 used the OPTAR range finder (“The Chieftain’s Hatch: Rangefinding.”); just as was called for in the fourth and fifth T110 designs. Utilizing pulse lights, the OPTAR range finder could determine the range by timing the reflection of light from the target; although it suffered from a scattering effect (Hunnicutt).

A T95 with an OPTAR rangefinder; as was intended for the fourth and fifth T110 designs.

A T95 with an OPTAR rangefinder; as was intended for the fourth and fifth T110 designs.

The video game World of Tanks represents three of the proposed T110 designs as vehicles in game; as the T110E3, the T110E4, and the T110E5, representing the third, fourth, and fifth proposals respectively.

Works Cited:

1. Estes, Kenneth W. M103 Heavy Tank 1950-74. Osprey Publishing Ltd., 2012. eBook.

2. Hunnicutt, R. P. Firepower: A History of the American Heavy Tank. Presidio, 86, 130, 172 – 176. Print.

3. “T110E3.” World of Tanks Wiki. Wargaming.net, 20 Mar 2013. Web. 24 May 2013. <http://wiki.worldoftanks.com/T110E3>.

4. “T110E4.” World of Tanks Wiki. Wargaming.net, 18 April 2013. Web. 24 May 2013. <http://wiki.worldoftanks.com/T110E4>.

5. “T110E5.” World of Tanks Wiki. Wargaming.net, 10 May 2013. Web. 24 May 2013. <http://wiki.worldoftanks.com/T110E5>.

6. “The Chieftain’s Hatch: Rangefinding.” World of Tanks. Wargaming.net. Web. 25 May 2013. <http://worldoftanks.com/news/2351-chieftains-hatch-ragefinding/>.


8. “Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 15 Nov 2012. Web. 29 May 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Detroit_Arsenal_Tank_Plant>.

The Neubaufahrzeug

The Neubaufahrzeug (“New Vehicle”) was a tank design based off of the Großtraktor (“Large Tractor”) tank design. The Großtraktor as a design began its life in secret in Russia at the secret testing facility Kama, which was jointly being used by the Russians and Germans; pursuant to the Treaty of Rapollo. The terms of the Treaty of Versailles at the end of World War I ruled out tanks as an option for Germany’s military, and thus the creation of Germany’s nascent post war tank force was done in secrecy. The Großtraktor project resulted in several prototypes which were briefly used for training purposes prior to being decommissioned. The Neubaufahrzeug project resulted in multiple prototypes, some of which would see action during the invasion of Norway. Prior to the use of the Neubaufahrzeug during the invasion of Norway, the vehicle was shown during the 1939  International Automobile Exposition in Berlin (“Neubaufahrzeug”). Physically the Neubaufahrzeug showed similarities to the Großtraktor design including the use of a 75mm cannon. The two designs created by Rheinmetall-Borsig and Krupp were labeled the PzKpfw NbFz V (PanzerKampfwagen NeubauFahrzeug V) and the PzKpfw NbFz VI respectively (“Neubaufahrzeug”).

Check out this video of a Neubaufahrzeug RC kit:

Works Cited:

1. “Neubaufahrzeug.” Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 30 Mar 2013. Web. 17 May 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neubaufahrzeug>.

The Großtraktor

The three competing Großtraktor designs.

The three competing Großtraktor designs*.

With Germany’s defeat following World War I, Germany faced military constraints pursuant to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. The terms of the Treaty of Versailles prohibited Germany from possessing tanks among other military restrictions. With things being monitored, development of Tanks occurred in secret. An example tank was received from the Swedish machinery manufacturer AB Landsverk; called the Gutehoffnungshütte** (“Großtraktor”). AB Landsverk would go on to be the main manufacturer of tanks for Sweden. In 1926 Rheinmetall-Borsig, Daimler-Benz and Krupp were commissioned to develop a 20 ton tank (“Großtraktor”). As the 1920s were coming to an end; Germans were performing experiments in secret in Russia. The Treaty of Rapallo, signed in 1922 in secret between Russia and Germany, provided the ability for experimentation near Kazan in Russia. The testing facility near Kazan was called Panzertruppenschule Kama (Armoured Troops School Kama) and was used from 1926 to 1933. The location was a joint testing ground and tank training ground for both the Russians and Germans. The term Kama comes from the two words Kazan and Malbrandt; Kazan being the nearby town and Oberstleutenant Malbrandt being the individual given the task of selecting the location used for testing. The vehicle was dubbed Großtraktor (“Large Tractor”) and was developed at the same time as another vehicle, the Leichttraktor (“Light Tractor”) (“Leichttraktor”). With the Nazi rise to power, the experimentation in Russia was halted and the prototypes brought back to Germany were they initially served a training role. The prototypes were decommissioned in 1937 due to inadequacies evident in their use as training tools; at least one ended up as a memorial to early armored regiments.

The Großtraktor was designed as a heavy breakthrough vehicle. The prototype vehicles had differences; however what follows was true of at least one or more of the models. The main armament was the same short 7.5 cm gun initially used on the Panzer IV; with secondary armaments including multiple machine guns. The approximate weight being 16 ton. The engine was a six-cylinder engine, in the 250-260 hp range. The following may have applied only to the Rheinmetall-Borsig and Krupp designs: a machine gun was placed at the rear of the tank, behind the turret; and the tank commander sat not in the turret, but in the hull to the right of the driver (Zaloga 13-14).

One result of the experimentation in Kazan was that the German Army Motorization Department felt compelled to field two tank types corresponding to the Großtraktor and the Leichttraktor; codenamed BW and ZW. The BW reference being for Battalionführerwagen, or the Battalion commander’s vehicle; which was intended to be a fire support vehicle. The BW was to accompany the ZW, the Zugführerwagen, or Section commander’s vehicle intended to act as the core battle tank (Zaloga 13-14).

The work on the Großtraktor led to the Neubaufahrzeug, a similar design.

*I’m interested to know which work this illustration is from.
**I haven’t seen any photos of this vehicle; if anyone is aware of any please let me know.

Works Cited:

1. “Großtraktor.” Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 1 Apr 2013. Web. 15 May 2013. <http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Großtraktor>.

2. “Tanks of the treaty of Versailles and the first World War.”World of Tanks Official European Forum. N.p., 13 Dec 2012. Web. 15 May 2013. <http://forum.worldoftanks.eu/index.php?/topic/183100-tanks-of-the-treaty-of-versailles-and-the-first-world-war/>.

3. “Leichttraktor.” Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 22 Mar 2013. Web. 16 May 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leichttraktor>.

4. Zaloga, Steven J. . Panzer IV Vs Char B1 Bis: France 1940. Osprey Publishing, 2011. 13-14. eBook.

105 mm (10.5 cm) Cannon on the Sherman and Panzer IV

An M4A3E8 Sherman Tank

An M4A3E8 Sherman Tank armed with a 76mm cannon.

In the game World of Tanks the available Sherman tanks, the M4, the M4A3E2, and the M4A3E8 as well as the Panzer (PzKpfw) IV are shown as having a 105mm cannon available. In the case of the Sherman, Gun 105 mm SPH M4 L/23; and in the case of the Panzer IV, Gun 10,5 cm KwK 42 L/28. While I’m aware of upgrade programs for the Sherman, while thinking about the Panzer IV this got me wondering about when this would have occurred and where it may have been seen.

Regarding the Sherman I have found that during the Second World War, there was a variant using a 105mm cannon: the M4 Sherman 105mm Howitzer. This variant was used in both an Artillery, and a Tank Destroyer capacity. These tanks were fitted with a modified 105mm M2 howitzer (“1944-U.S.A. M4 Medium Tank (105)”); the M1/M2 being the guns in the M7 Priest Self-Propelled Gun.

While actual Sherman’s using the 105mm cannon were produced and saw action, the Panzer IV with a 105mm (10.5cm) was a different story. The German’s appear to have experimented with a 105mm artillery gun mounted in an experimental demountable turret on a Panzer IV chassis (“Panzer IV”); this experimental design was called the Heuschrecke (“Grasshopper”), a Self-Propelled Gun. A further  experimental design, a tank destroyer nicknamed Dicker Max (Fat Max); it was called the 10.5 cm K gepanzerte Selbstfahrlafette. While the prototype for the  Heuschrecke 10 doesn’t appear to have been sent into combat; the Dicker Max prototypes, both, were sent to the Eastern Front. What is not clear is if two were built and sent to the Eastern Front, or if one was built and sent along with a prototype for the Sturer Emil (Stubborn Emil) which was a comparable vehicle. Quoting the Wikipedia page for the Sturer Emil, the name for the prototypes of the two Sturer Emil units sent to the Eastern Front where “Max and Moritz” (“Sturer Emil”).

Works Cited:

1. “M4 Sherman.” Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 12 May 2013. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M4_Sherman>.

2. “The History of the M4 Sherman 105mm Howitzer.” . Tamiya.com. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://www.tamiya.com/english/products/56014sherman/sherman_expl.htm>.

3. “1944-U.S.A. M4 Medium Tank (105).” Battle Tanks. N.p.. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://www.battletanks.com/m4_105mm.htm>.

4. “Panzer IV.” Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 7 May 2013. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panzer_IV>.

5. “10.5 cm K (gp.Sfl.).” Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 1 Mar 2013. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/10.5_cm_K_(gp.Sfl.)>.

6. “Heuschrecke 10.” Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 8 May 2013. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heuschrecke_10>.

7.  “Sturer Emil.” Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 27 Feb 2013. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sturer_Emil>.

8. “Dicker Max and Sturer Emil in Combat.” Flames of War. N.p., 21 May 2010. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://www.flamesofwar.com/hobby.aspx?art_id=1936>.

Page 1 of 2

Copyright © 2016 and beyond by David Cummings, Tankpedia. Powered by WordPress & Theme by Anders Norén