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Category: Tank Destroyer (Page 1 of 2)

In Pictures: The Jagdtiger Tank Destroyer

20 October 1943, Adolf Hitler reviews an Italian Carro Armato P 40 and a wooden mockup of a Jagdtiger.

20 October 1943, Adolf Hitler reviews an Italian Carro Armato P 40 and a wooden mockup of a Jagdtiger.

The Panzerjäger Tiger Ausf. B was a German tank destroyer of the Second World War; known more commonly as the Jagdtiger. The ordnance designation for the Jagdtiger was Sd. Kfz. 186. Weighing 71 tonnes, and armed with a 128 mm PaK 44 L/55, it was both the heaviest, and heaviest armored fighting vehicle used operationally during the war. It saw limited service on both fronts from 1944 to the end of the war; with only 88 vehicles built. Tank ace Otto Carius would command a company of Jagdtigers during the war.


Armoured Units of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

As the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS or ISIL depending on the context) has coalesced into a nation state, it has acquired a diverse selection of military hardware. This includes armoured units.  Among the various pieces of equipment deployed by ISIS are the Badger MRAP, Humvees, T-54/55, T-62, and T-72 main battle tanks (MBT), as well as M1117 armoured cars, MT-LB, BMP-1, and M113 APCs. The tanks, MT-LB and BMP-1 are Soviet Stock, and the Humvee, M1117, and M113 are all native to the United States. Depending on the sophistication of ISIS armoured vehicle recovery and repair, possible additions include the US native M1 Abrams MBT. ISIS armoured stock are spoils of war; possibly captured from a variety of places including the Iraqi Military, the Military of Syria, and other militant groups, as well as Iran. On the ground ISIS is currently fighting against a multitude of opponents; this could include any of the following,

  • Other militant groups
  • Kurdish forces
  • The Military of Syria
  • The Military of Iraq
  • The Military of Iran

Given the nature of the acquisition of ISIS’s military equipment and the highly fluid nature of the conflict in which she is fighting, her inventory of Armoured Fighting Vehicles has the potential to change rapidly. Future acquisitions could easily include more of the above as well as: M1 Abrams MBT, BMP-2, et al..

The actual size of ISIS’s armoured units is difficult to estimate given ongoing acquisitions and attrition; although it had been noted as being approximately 40 strong for two of the MBTs: 30 T-54/55 and roughly 10 T-72 tanks. Although these estimates were from earlier in the year regarding the T-54/55 and T-72. ISIS employs a strong collection of Technicals; pick-up Trucks with mounted weapons (and possibly armour as well); ISIS’s limit for these vehicles realistically is limited to her desire as pick-up trucks and supporting mountable weapons should be in ample supply. In a recent Wall Street Journal (WSJ) article it was estimated that ISIS employs approximately 30 M1 Abrams already. Given the state of the war, it is not a question of if, but rather when ISIS will expand it’s inventory of US military hardware. However despite this fact the M1 Abrams is an iconic weapon system; given ISIS’s documented interest in lauding its perceived attacks on the West, including the murder recently of US journalists, it would seem logical that an M1 Abrams would prove an excellent backdrop for an ISIS propaganda video.  As such I do not believe ISIS currently has any M1 Abrams.

Based on my own research (with an emphasis on visual evidence) I estimate the following numbers for ISIS’s AFV inventory,

  • T-54/55 MBT – 10 to 20; stock from either of the Syrian or Iraqi military. Likely from the Syrian civil war including all combatants.
  • T-72 MBT – 3 to 5; stock from either of the Syrian or Iraqi military. Likely from the Syrian civil war including all combatants.
  • T-62 MBT – 20 to 30; stock from either of the Syrian or Iraqi military. A large stock of these were captured from the Iraqi military however the Syrian Civil War would have also fostered an environment to acquire these.
  • MT-LB – 3; seized from the Iraqi military; also possibly in use by Syrians.
  • M113 – 3 to 5; including two captured from the Iraqi military.
  • BMP-1 – 3 to 5; stock from the Syrian military from the Syrian civil war including all combatants.
  • M1117 – 3 to 5; several seized from the Iraqi military
  • Badger MRAP – 3 or less; seized from the Iraqi military.
  • 2S1 Gvozdika Self Propelled Artillery – 3 or less; stock from either of the Syrian or Iraqi military.
  • 2K12 Kub (SA-6 Gainful) SAM missile systems – 3 captured in Iraq from the Iraqi military.
  • Humvees – perhaps 10 to 20 acquired from the Iraqi military.

I estimate ISIS total inventory at approximately 80 vehicles at most; this does not include Technicals and related vehicles such as Humvees. Technicals by far represent the majority of AFVs employed by ISIS; with the above representing a small fraction: perhaps as little as 1 to 3% although likely 1% or less. Given ISIS’s resources, she is well equiped to use and maintain these systems; the exception being the 2K12 Kub system’s main armament. There are claims that the US weapons systems will prove difficult to maintain; with a lack of spare parts and technical expertise. This is false; ISIS’s arrary of Technicals includes many illustrating a high degree of inginuity and resourcefulness. It is hubris to think that ISIS is incapable of maintaining its inventory of AFVs; her real limits will be with missiles of any size including captured ballistic missiles and aircraft. Further, ISIS is well equipped with mobile man operated anti-aircraft systems such as shoulder fired manpad systems. These systems provide a degree of secuirty for ISIS’s AFVs; while not absolute, they are a major factor for consideration in any airstrike targeting ISIS AFVs.

A video showing captured T-62 MBTs in a field; ISIS captured these from the Iraqi Military. They sit with a few APCs, possibly Soviet MT-LB APCs. I estimate in this video 10 T-62 and 3 MT-LB AFVs along with possibly 2 more MT-LB and 3 more T-62 in the far background.

Another video showing a parade of armour including T-62 MBTs and a BMP-1.


A video showing ISIS Technicals and an M113 APC.


Works Cited

Bender, Jeremy. “As ISIS Routs The Iraqi Army, Here’s A Look At What The Jihadists Have In Their Arsenal.” Business Insider. Business Insider, Inc, 8 July 2014. Web. 3 Sept. 2014. <http://www.businessinsider.com/isis-military-equipment-breakdown-2014-7>.

Parrish, Brent. “The Growing ISIS Arsenal, Pt. 1.” The Right Planet. 29 Aug. 2014. Web. 3 Sept. 2014. <http://www.therightplanet.com/2014/08/the-growing-isis-arsenal-pt-1/>.

Firik, Mehmet Kemal. “ISIS’s Weapon Inventory Grows.” Daily Sabah. 7 Feb. 2014. Web. 4 Sept. 2014. <http://www.dailysabah.com/mideast/2014/07/03/isiss-weapon-inventory-grows>.

“ISIS Ambushes Iraqi Army in Anbar Province.” HubPages. 15 July 2014. Web. 4 Sept. 2014. <http://perrya.hubpages.com/hub/ISIS-Ambushes-Iraqi-Army-in-Anbar-Province>.

PREGENT, MICHAEL, and MICHAEL WEISS. “Exploiting the ISIS Vulnerabilities in Iraq: The Terrorists’ Heavy Military Equipment Is Hard to Maintain, Easy to Target from the Air.” The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, 12 Aug. 2014. Web. 4 Sept. 2014. <http://online.wsj.com/articles/michael-pregent-and-michael-weiss-exploiting-the-isis-vulnerabilities-in-iraq-1407884145>.

The JgdPz38(t) or Hetzer on Inside the Chieftain’s Hatch

8.8 cm FlaK 37 auf Sonderfahrgestell or Flakpanzer für s FlaK (Pz. Sfl. IVc)

The 8.8 cm FlaK auf Sonderfahrgestell or Flakpanzer für s FlaK (Pz. Sfl. IVc) was a German tank destroyer that only made it to the prototype stage; I will refer to it as the Pz. Sfl. IVc, another designation, for the remainder of this article. In 1941, the Waffenamt orderd a heavy Panzerjäger. The vehicle was inted to mount the 8.8cm L/56 cannon. The turret design was intended to be an open design. A later revision would plan that the 8.8 cm Pak L/71 cannon would be used. The project for a heavy Panzerjäger would be canceled after the chassis had been built; they would in turn be used for the development of a heavy FlaK vehicle. In 1944 the FlaK41 was mounted. Plans were in place to mount the Gerät 042 as well as the 10.5 cm leFH43 Waffenträger. Only 3 prototypes would be built by Krupp, the manufacturer. The vehicle had a crew of 8 and weighed 26 tons. The vehicle was powered by a Maybach HL90 engine and measured 7 metres long, by 3 metres wide, by 2.8 metres high.

This vehicle is available in the video game World of Tanks as the Pz.Sfl. IVc:


Works Cited:

1. Doyle, Hilary L., and Peter Chamberlain. Encyclopedia of German Tanks of World War Two: A complete illustrated directory of German battle tanks, armoured cars, self-propelled guns and semi-tracked vehicles, 1933-1945. Revised Edition. New York: Sterling Publishing Co.Inc., 1994. 160 – 161. Print.

In Pictures: The British Churchill Gun Carrier

The Churchill Gun Carrier was a tank destroyer built on the chasis of the Churchill tank; formaly known as the A22D, Churchill 3 inch Gun Carrier. The vehicle had a fixed 88 mm (3.5 in) thick superstructure with it’s main gun in a ball mount.  The main armament  was a 3 inch anti-aircraft gun, however obsolete for it’s time. As many as 50 Churchill Gun Carriers were built from 1941 to 1942, during the Second World War, however none saw any action.


Works Cited:

1. “Churchill tank.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 17 Oct 2013. Web. 22 Oct 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Churchill_tank>.

The TV-8, Chrysler’s Medium Tank Concept

Chrysler's TV-8 Medium Tank Concept.

Chrysler’s TV-8 Medium Tank Concept.

Today’s post is on Chrysler’s wonderful TV-8 medium tank concept from the 1950s. The vehicle’s unique design placed the entire crew, the main armament, and engine in a bubble shaped superstructure; often referred to as a turret. The main gun was fixed in the turret, this and a lack of information to suggest the turret moved makes me think this vehicle was closer in design to an Assault gun than a conventional medium tank. The approximate weight of the vehicle was to be 25 tons with 15 being in the superstructure. The superstructure was planned to be separable for transport by air. The main armament was to have been a 90mm gun T208 with an autoloader. Secondary armaments were to include a .50 caliber machine gun on the turret and two .30 caliber machine mounted co-axially. The vehicle was designed with WMDs in mind and this was reflected in several design considerations including placing a closed circuit TV system inside the tank.

Works Cited:

1. “The Chrysler TV-8 Concept Tank.” Argghhh! The Home Of Two Of Jonah’s Military Guys… N.p., 18 Dec 2008 . Web. 17 Sep 2013. <http://thedonovan.com/archives/2008/12/the_chrysler_tv.html>.

The T-22, or TG-1(Tank Grotte-1) or Tank Grote

In 1931 the Soviet tank design team (OKMO bureau) was ordered to develop a medium tank, the T-22; the task would fall to a German engineer Edward Grote(or Grotte as sometimes written). The ensuing project led by Grotte would end up bearing his name as the TG-1(Tank Grotte-1) or Tank Grotte. The vehicle only made it to the prototype stage, with the prototype vehicle being made in 1932. The development took place in Leningrad. Although the vehicle performed well in tests it was passed in favor of heavier contemporary designs due to it’s complicated design.

Although the TG was referred to as a medium tank design, it is described as an Assault gun as it possessed a 76.2mm Gun A-19 in its super structure atop which sat a turret mounting a 37mm Gun PS-2. The super structure mounting the 76.2mm Gun A-19 is sometimes mistakenly referred to as a turret.  The TG bears a close resemblance in terms of it’s general design to the Churchill-1; which mounted a 2 pounder in it’s turret and a 3 inch howitzer in it’s hull.

Works Cited:

1. Vendel, Ottar. “Russian tanks and armor – Tank Grote TG.”Russian Armour: 1915-1997. Ibis Media. Web. 7 Sep 2013. <http://www.nemo.nu/ibisportal/5pansar/5sidor/tg.htm>.

2. “Tank Grote.” Russati.su: Soviet tanks, armored cars, missiles and more!. N.p., 9 Nov 2012. Web. 8 Sep 2013. <http://www.russati.su/tanks/Tank_Grote.shtml>.

3. “Танк Гроте. СССР.” Альтернативная История – крупнейший блог Рунета. N.p., 13 Sep 2009. Web. 12 Sep 2013. <http://alternathistory.org.ua/tank-grote-sssr>.

The SU-100Y Tank Destroyer

This post focuses on the self-propelled guns developed from the T-100 project; with a focus on the SU-100Y.

The SU-100Y at the  Kubinka Tank Museum in Russia.

The SU-100Y at the Kubinka Tank Museum in Russia.

A profile view showing the T-100X (SU-100X), SU-100Y, and Object 103 (Obyekt 103).

A profile view showing the T-100X (SU-100X), SU-100Y, and Object 103 (Obyekt 103). This image mistakenly notes the SU-100Y as being used during the Winter War; this image courtesy of juniourgeneral.org.

Based on the T-100  (“SU-100Y Self-Propelled Gun.”), a prototype tank design which began it’s life sometime between 1938 and 1939 (“T-100 tank.”), the SU-100Y was a prototype tank destroyer. Development began in 1939 with the Winter War already being fought between the Soviet Union and Finland (“SU-100Y Self-Propelled Gun.”). The T-100 and the SU-100Y both only made it to the prototype stage; with the T-100 seeing action during the Winter War (“T-100 tank.”) and the SU-100Y serving during the defense of Moscow (“SU-100Y Self-Propelled Gun.”). Initial design requirements for the what would end up being the SU-100Y included the vehicle having qualities of a bridge laying, explosives transport, and tank recovery unit (“SU-100Y Self-Propelled Gun.”) . Although the T-100 had effectively been passed in favor of the KV given the poor performance of the T-100 and the SMK (a competitor to the T-100) during the war in Finland; work continued on existing proposals to enhance both (Zaloga and Grandsen 118). A request by Kirill Afanasievich Meretskov, commander of the Soviet 7th Army in Finland was made to use a larger gun on the heavy tanks to be used against bunkers and anti-tank obstacles among other things (Zaloga and Grandsen 118). A 152mm cannon was suggested however this was dropped in favor of using a 100mm or 130mm cannon (“SU-100Y Self-Propelled Gun.”). The initial design was given the designation T-100X and was accepted on January 8, 1940. The T-100X fielded a 130 mm Naval Gun B-13 as it’s main armament and used a torsion bar suspension. A redesign modifying the fighting compartment to reduce manufacturing times resulted in the SU-100Y (or T-100Y) (Potapov). Production of the prototype began on March 1, 1940 with the factory having received the hull (Potapov), and testing began on the 14th of the same month (“SU-100Y Self-Propelled Gun.”); this SU-100Y was actually built from a rebuilt T-100 prototype (Zaloga and Grandsen 118). In April 1940 a proposal for another T-100 based vehicle was made; this one called Object 103 (Obyekt 103) and featured a 130 mm Naval Gun B-13 as it’s main armament in a rotating turret along with three 7.62mm machine guns (“SU-100Y Self-Propelled Gun.”). Object 103 never went beyond the drawing board. Although the SU-100Y has the appearance and characteristics of a tank destroyer, it is sometimes referred to as a self-propelled gun; in fact, during the defense of Moscow it served with an Independent Artillery Division for Special Duties (“SU-100Y Self-Propelled Gun.”).

The SU-100Y is available as a premium tank (for purchase) in the Video Game World of Tanks.

The SU-100Y as seen from the tech screen in World of Tanks.

The SU-100Y as seen from the tech screen in World of Tanks.

Works Cited:

1. “SU-100Y Self-Propelled Gun.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 24 Apr 2013. Web. 12 Jun 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SU-100Y_Self-Propelled_Gun>.

2. “T-100 tank.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 5 Jun 2013. Web. 12 Jun 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T-100_tank>.

3. “SU-100Y.” World of Tanks. Wargaming.net, 12 Jun 2013. Web. 15 Jun 2013. <http://wiki.worldoftanks.com/SU-100Y>.

4. Potapov, Valeri. “SU-100Y Self-Propelled Gun.” The Russian Battlefield. N.p., 18 Sep 2011. Web. 15 Jun 2013. <http://english.battlefield.ru/su-100y.html>.

5. Zaloga , Steven J., and James Grandsen. Soviet Tanks and Combat Vehicles of World War Two. Arms and Armour Press, 1984. 118. Print.

The T110 120mm Heavy Tank Project

Today’s post is on the T110 120mm heavy tank project. While I cite numerous sources for this article I must point out that it is the work of author Hunnicutt which is the authoritative and most influential of all reference materials.

Initiated on December 3, 1954, the T110 120mm heavy tank project began (Estes). Prior work had begun on October 30 for cannons to be used in this project, the T204 and T179, 120mm cannons. On September 18, 1956 the project would be canceled in light of the success of the  T43 project which would lead to the M103 (Estes). The T110 began life as concept TS-31 and was given to Chrysler Corporation with their proposal being the 120mm gun tank T110 (Hunnicutt). There were multiple versions of the T110 that were proposed. The initial proposal was rejected as its dimensions would of prohibited the vehicles passage through the Berne International Tunnel, a requirement for the project (Hunnicutt). A further requirement was that the vehicle have a 50 ton weight limit (Hunnicutt). As design progressed the  T123E1 was selected as the cannon (Hunnicutt). All total there were five T110 designs (Hunnicutt). The names Chrysler and Detroit Arsenal should be considered interchangeable when reading on the development of this tank. To be clear the Detroit Arsenal, or Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant (DATP) was established by Chrysler but owned and by the United States government and alternately would be Army operated or contractor operated (“Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant”). Chrysler operated the facility during the development of the T110; having regained it from the Army in 1952 (“Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant”).

The five proposals:

  1. Proposal 1 – initially rejected as the cupola arrangement would have prohibited the vehicles passage through the Berne International Tunnel. Redesigned so that the cab width was reduced to 124″ and commander relocated to center rear; the nose shortened; and fuel removed from the front. AV-1790 engine selected; XTG-500 transmission; flat-track suspension (Hunnicutt).

  2. Proposal 2 – redesign of proposal 1 with transmission relocated to engine compartment; cupola removed; fuel moved to front with the driver to the left; AOI-1490 engine selected; XTG-500 transmission; traditional suspension (Hunnicutt).

    Proposal 2

    Proposal 2

  3. Proposal 3 – the main gun was placed in a rigid mount for this proposal. This proposal was fraught with problems with regards to power plant mounting; engine and transmission issues; grill area issues (Hunnicutt).

    Proposal 3

    Proposal 3

  4. Proposal 4 – this proposal placed an AOI-1490 engine and XTG-510 transmission in rear; rear deck infrared sheilding; rigid gun emplacement; both .50 and .30 caliber machine guns; a T53 OPTAR range finder; a T156 telescope as the main gun site and a M16A1 periscope as the secondary sitting mechanism. The commander was placed in the center towards the rear; the gunner on the left of the gun mount; and the driver at the right of the gun mount. This vehicle had a limited turret traverse (Hunntington).
  5. Proposal 5 – this design was for a vehicle with a turret capable of a full 360 degree traverse. This design many standard components including the same turret traverse ring as the M103 series. This design had a crew of four; with the gunner and the commander to the left of the main gun. This design had a power rammer for the main gun; a commander’s override system; a T53 OPTAR range finder. A full size mock up was made of this vehicle (Hunntington).

    Proposal 5

    Proposal 5

A document reflecting specifications for the T95, T96, and  T110:

Project T95 used the OPTAR range finder (“The Chieftain’s Hatch: Rangefinding.”); just as was called for in the fourth and fifth T110 designs. Utilizing pulse lights, the OPTAR range finder could determine the range by timing the reflection of light from the target; although it suffered from a scattering effect (Hunnicutt).

A T95 with an OPTAR rangefinder; as was intended for the fourth and fifth T110 designs.

A T95 with an OPTAR rangefinder; as was intended for the fourth and fifth T110 designs.

The video game World of Tanks represents three of the proposed T110 designs as vehicles in game; as the T110E3, the T110E4, and the T110E5, representing the third, fourth, and fifth proposals respectively.

Works Cited:

1. Estes, Kenneth W. M103 Heavy Tank 1950-74. Osprey Publishing Ltd., 2012. eBook.

2. Hunnicutt, R. P. Firepower: A History of the American Heavy Tank. Presidio, 86, 130, 172 – 176. Print.

3. “T110E3.” World of Tanks Wiki. Wargaming.net, 20 Mar 2013. Web. 24 May 2013. <http://wiki.worldoftanks.com/T110E3>.

4. “T110E4.” World of Tanks Wiki. Wargaming.net, 18 April 2013. Web. 24 May 2013. <http://wiki.worldoftanks.com/T110E4>.

5. “T110E5.” World of Tanks Wiki. Wargaming.net, 10 May 2013. Web. 24 May 2013. <http://wiki.worldoftanks.com/T110E5>.

6. “The Chieftain’s Hatch: Rangefinding.” World of Tanks. Wargaming.net. Web. 25 May 2013. <http://worldoftanks.com/news/2351-chieftains-hatch-ragefinding/>.


8. “Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 15 Nov 2012. Web. 29 May 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Detroit_Arsenal_Tank_Plant>.

105 mm (10.5 cm) Cannon on the Sherman and Panzer IV

An M4A3E8 Sherman Tank

An M4A3E8 Sherman Tank armed with a 76mm cannon.

In the game World of Tanks the available Sherman tanks, the M4, the M4A3E2, and the M4A3E8 as well as the Panzer (PzKpfw) IV are shown as having a 105mm cannon available. In the case of the Sherman, Gun 105 mm SPH M4 L/23; and in the case of the Panzer IV, Gun 10,5 cm KwK 42 L/28. While I’m aware of upgrade programs for the Sherman, while thinking about the Panzer IV this got me wondering about when this would have occurred and where it may have been seen.

Regarding the Sherman I have found that during the Second World War, there was a variant using a 105mm cannon: the M4 Sherman 105mm Howitzer. This variant was used in both an Artillery, and a Tank Destroyer capacity. These tanks were fitted with a modified 105mm M2 howitzer (“1944-U.S.A. M4 Medium Tank (105)”); the M1/M2 being the guns in the M7 Priest Self-Propelled Gun.

While actual Sherman’s using the 105mm cannon were produced and saw action, the Panzer IV with a 105mm (10.5cm) was a different story. The German’s appear to have experimented with a 105mm artillery gun mounted in an experimental demountable turret on a Panzer IV chassis (“Panzer IV”); this experimental design was called the Heuschrecke (“Grasshopper”), a Self-Propelled Gun. A further  experimental design, a tank destroyer nicknamed Dicker Max (Fat Max); it was called the 10.5 cm K gepanzerte Selbstfahrlafette. While the prototype for the  Heuschrecke 10 doesn’t appear to have been sent into combat; the Dicker Max prototypes, both, were sent to the Eastern Front. What is not clear is if two were built and sent to the Eastern Front, or if one was built and sent along with a prototype for the Sturer Emil (Stubborn Emil) which was a comparable vehicle. Quoting the Wikipedia page for the Sturer Emil, the name for the prototypes of the two Sturer Emil units sent to the Eastern Front where “Max and Moritz” (“Sturer Emil”).

Works Cited:

1. “M4 Sherman.” Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 12 May 2013. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M4_Sherman>.

2. “The History of the M4 Sherman 105mm Howitzer.” . Tamiya.com. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://www.tamiya.com/english/products/56014sherman/sherman_expl.htm>.

3. “1944-U.S.A. M4 Medium Tank (105).” Battle Tanks. N.p.. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://www.battletanks.com/m4_105mm.htm>.

4. “Panzer IV.” Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 7 May 2013. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panzer_IV>.

5. “10.5 cm K (gp.Sfl.).” Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 1 Mar 2013. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/10.5_cm_K_(gp.Sfl.)>.

6. “Heuschrecke 10.” Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 8 May 2013. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heuschrecke_10>.

7.  “Sturer Emil.” Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 27 Feb 2013. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sturer_Emil>.

8. “Dicker Max and Sturer Emil in Combat.” Flames of War. N.p., 21 May 2010. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://www.flamesofwar.com/hobby.aspx?art_id=1936>.

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